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The cloud begins with coal
Big data, big networks, big infrastructure- An overview of the electricity used by the global digital ecosystem
A study by Digital Power Group
The information economy is a blue-whale economy with its energy uses mostly out of sight. Based on a mid-range estimate, the world’s Information-Communications-Technologies (ICT) ecosystem uses about 1,500 TWh of electricity annually, equal to all the electric generation of Japan and Germany combined -- as much electricity as was used for global illumination in 1985. The ICT ecosystem now approaches 10% of world electricity generation. Or in other energy terms – the zettabyte era already uses about 50% more energy than global aviation. This recent study (August 2013) by Digital Power Group includes interesting facts about the use of electricity by smart phones and tablets.
You can read the complete paper at : http://www.tech-pundit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Cloud_Begins_With_Coal.pdf?c761ac&c761ac.
Using biomass for energy is an important part of the renewable energy mix. However, bioenergy production should follow EU resource efficiency principles, according to a new report from the European Environment Agency (EEA). This means extracting more energy from the same material input, and avoiding negative environmental effects potentially caused by bioenergy production.
The report, ‘EU bioenergy from a resource efficiency perspective’, primarily looks at the potential for energy from agricultural land, although it includes forest and waste biomass in the overall analysis. Bioenergy should be produced in line with EU objectives to use resources more efficiently, the EEA report says. This means reducing the land and other resources needed to produce each unit of bioenergy and avoiding environmental harm from bioenergy production. According to the EEA analysis, the most efficient energy use of biomass is for heating and electricity as well as advanced biofuels, also called ‘second generation’ biofuels. First generation transport biofuels, for example, biodiesel based on oilseed rape or ethanol from wheat, are shown to be a far less efficient use of resources.
Download the report here: http://www.eea.europa.eu/pressroom/newsreleases/bioenergy-production-must-use-resources
Why the European Parliament needs to reject back-loading - Recommendation by the Alliance of Energy Intensive Industries
Today the European Parliament will vote on the Commission proposal amending the Emissions Trading Directive (ETS) so as to allow the Commission to withhold emission allowances from the ETS market and increase carbon and energy prices in Europe despite the fact that the 21% reduction target of the ETS will be achieved and despite the fact that we are in a deep economic crisis with 26 million European's without jobs, 10 million more than in 2008.
The Alliance of Energy Intensive Industries calls upon Members of the European Parliament to follow the opinion of ITRE and the combined majority of Members of ITRE and ENVI which rejected the Commission proposal in the committee votes in January and February and to support Amendment 20 which rejects the Commission proposal.
The Commission proposal is the first step to intervene in Phase 3 of the EU emissions trading system (ETS) by withholding 900 million emissions allowances from the market, with the intention to cancel these in a second step and therewith increasing the existing cap beyond 21%.
While supporting the ETS as a policy instrument to meet the EU’s climate objectives, the Alliance of Energy Intensive Industries is opposed to any modification of the ETS rules which would damage further industry’s competitiveness. The EU must stick to the 2020 target formula agreed upon under the third Climate and Energy package and must not revise it unilaterally unless the carbon leakage issue is solved by a binding international climate agreement.
The proposed interference within the agreed policy framework will simply increase the costs for industry and private consumers. By hampering predictability and by increasing regulatory risk of further intervention, it will also deter investments at a time when the EU economy is struggling to find a way out of the crisis.
Instead, policy makers should focus on the post-2020 policy framework and endeavour to work out a scheme that makes the EU more competitive and ensures affordable energy for the industry.
Please click here for a more detailed recommendation of the Alliance.
The AEII includes 15 European sector federations representing over 30.000 companies and 2.6 million directly employed people:
CEFIC, Cembureau, Cerameunie, CEPI, EuLA, EuroAlliages, Eurochlor, EUROFER, Eurogypsum, Eurometaux, Europia, EXCA, Fertilizers Europe, GlassAlliance, IFIEC.
Growth and Employment first: Energy-Intensive Industries warn against competitiveness impacts of proposed changes to the EU ETS
The increase in ETS prices targeted by the Commission through short-term intervention will further increase energy prices and by the same token, competitive imbalance between EU and overseas Energy Intensive Industries. The revision of the EU ETS Directive, which would leave more room for the Commission to intervene in the timing of auctions, also induces greater uncertainty for industry. Therefore, the Alliance of Energy Intensive Industries urges Members of the Parliament and Member States’ representatives to reject this proposal, which will alter the nature of the EU ETS. If approved, this proposal will not prevent industry closures and carbon leakage but rather relocate investments in manufacturing industry outside Europe.
Following the fundamental divergence of views between the Industry Committee and the Environment Committee of the European Parliament, all Members of the European Parliament will be asked to vote on the Commission proposal amending the EU ETS Directive, which should lead to a change in the timing for auctioning emission allowances (so-called “back-loading”).
The Alliance of Energy Intensive Industries, currently representing more than 30.000 enterprises and directly employing more than 2.5 Million people in the EU, urges the European Parliament and Member States to reject the Commission’s proposal on the following ground:
- Increase in ETS costs will push up operating costs for manufacturing industries that emit CO2 directly. Despite partial relief through free allowances, this will affect competitiveness;
- An artificial rise in ETS prices will push up electricity prices. Costs imposed on electricity providers will inevitably be passed on to private and industrial consumers through higher power prices. In the case of industrial energy consumers, recent Commission analysis highlighted that energy costs (electricity) in the EU are twice as expensive as in competing regions such as the US, Korea or Canada. Short-term intervention with the overt intention to artificially increase ETS costs will further add to this competitive disadvantage, as European industry cannot offset these additional costs.
- Increasing uncertainty for investors will also further delay economic recovery. In the face of recent plant closures, restructuring and lay-offs throughout the whole value chain of European manufacturing industry, the EU should avoid intervention that would add to the cost burden of its economic base and make climate policy less predictable. The European industry has been struggling for almost four years with recession conditions brought about by the financial and economic crisis. Unemployment has climbed to 25.9 million or 10.7 per cent in the EU 27 in December 2012, a historically high level. Investments are much needed to reinvigorate industrial production and reestablish growth but the Commission proposal to intervene in the market would create a framework which no longer provides legal certainty.
Any structural adjustment of the ETS should be the outcome of a thorough review of longerterm objectives, taking a broader view of climate, energy, industrial factors (i.e. technical and economic feasibility), while taking into account the global situation.
- The proposed amendment of the ETS is unnecessary as the EU’s climate objectives will be met anyway. The EU’s carbon emission reduction objective for 2020 will be reached even at low price due to the limited number of allowances representing the overall cap of the EU ETS. Currently, the carbon price reflects the economic downturn exactly as it should do.
- Energy Intensive Industries stand fully behind the ETS as a major instrument for Europe’s climate ambition. By rejecting back-loading, the Alliance wants to ensure that the EU-ETS stays as initially foreseen a cost-effective and market-based instrument and that its nature is not altered. The revision of the EU ETS Directive as proposed by the Commission would give additional and unjustified discretionary power to the Commission.
Energy Intensive Industries are ready to participate in establishing a framework for EU ambitions beyond 2020 which will address the longer-term picture.
For further information please contact: Daniela Haiduc, CEPI Communications and Public Affairs Manager email@example.com or 0032 26274915.
In July, the European Commission issued a proposal to postpone the auctioning of an as yet undefined number of CO2 Allowances until towards the end of the third trading period. The purpose is to ensure the ‘orderly’ functioning of the EU ETS. This is likely to be the first step in further regulatory proposals to intervene in Phase 3 with the overt intention of reducing the existing cap on emissions. This cap is already set to meet the EU’s requirement to reduce EU ETS emissions by 21% by 2020 from a 2005 baseline.
While supporting the EU ETS as a policy instrument to meet the EU’s climate objectives, the Alliance of Energy Intensive Industries is opposed to any modification of the EU ETS rules which would damage further industry’s competitiveness. The EU must stick to the 2020 target formula agreed upon under the third Climate and Energy package and must not revise it unilaterally unless the carbon leakage issue is solved by a binding international climate agreement.
The proposed interference within the agreed policy framework will simply increase the costs for industry. By hampering predictability and by increasing regulatory risk of further intervention, it will also deter investments at a time when the EU economy is struggling to find a way out of the crisis.
Instead, policy makers should focus on the post-2020 policy framework and endeavour to work out a scheme that makes the EU more competitive.
In this context, the ‘back-loading’ initiative is inappropriate, and the Alliance of Energy Intensive Industries therefore calls for the rejection of the back-loading proposal for the following reasons:
1. No artificial cost increase: the back-loading proposal will inevitably lead to direct and indirect EU-only CO2 cost increases, affecting the energy-intensive businesses and private consumers, at a time when growth and value creation are needed to combat the economic crisis. Rising energy and CO2 prices do not create overall value or jobs. They will hamper Europe’s economic recovery and diminish the global competitiveness of European industry.
2. The carbon market is functioning. The carbon price today reflects the economic downturn exactly as it should do.
3. The proposal puts an end to the notion of the ETS as a market-based instrument. Trying to manipulate carbon prices through political intervention will now require a risk calculation based on the likelihood of further political intervention.
4. In the absence of an international climate agreement providing level playing field, higher carbon prices do not bring forward breakthrough technologies but do increase carbon costs and potentially carbon leakage instead. It's worth recalling that the ETS is technology-neutral - neither intended to promote one technology over another, nor to lead to the emergence of new technologies. So only the mitigation objective matters, not the carbon price.
5. Business needs predictability and transparency: political intervention to change rules, often through Comitology, creates instability. Piecemeal interventions in the market hamper predictability and deter investments.
6. Consult Industry in order to look forward: the EU should look forward and link its post-2020 climate and energy policy to industrial competitiveness, working with industry on solutions based on technical feasibility and economic viability. Amendment of the present EU ETS must also remove barriers and risks for EU growth, taking into consideration binding mitigation commitments by third countries and their impact on sectors and sub-sectors, so as to secure an international level playing field for EU industries.
Plenary debate on backloading necessary
20 February 2013
Dear Member of the European Parliament,
On January 24th the EP Industry Committee strongly rejected the Commission proposal amending the EU ETS Directive, clarifying provisions on the timing of auctions of greenhouse gas allowances (backloading). Conversely, on February 19th the Environment Committee voted in favour of the rapporteur’s compromise amendments in support of the Commission proposal. The Committee rejected the position of the Industry Committee and decided to vote at its 26 February meeting on whether or not to give the rapporteur a mandate for negotiating a first reading agreement with the Council Presidency and the Commission.
There are significant differences between the view of the Industry and the Environment Committee but in fact in the two Committees combined there were more votes opposing backloading than in favour. This highlights the wide differences in views and the importance of having a full, democratic and transparent plenary debate on this crucial issue for the EU. The plenary debate, followed by a vote, would allow all MEPs to express their views and provide required political support for the final decision before negotiations with the Council Presidency and the Commission, which might commit Parliament, are opened.
This is an important debate for EU competitiveness and deserves full consideration by all the institutions. So the Alliance of Energy Intensive Industries, representing the interests of over 30.000 European companies, asks you and your political group to support this view. We are opposed to backloading because it pushes up energy costs in the EU for industrial and individual energy users alike, without any environmental benefit. In the current economic climate the measure is unnecessary and ineffective. The ETS continues to function as designed and is on target to achieve its emission reduction targets ahead of schedule at the lowest possible cost.
We thank you in advance for taking the above into consideration.
Dr. Annette Loske, IFIEC
Gordon Moffat, EUROFER
Hubert Mandery, Cefic
For the Alliance of Energy Intensive Industries